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NS2下AODV协议aodv.cc注释

//#include <ip.h>

#include <aodv/aodv.h>
#include <aodv/aodv_packet.h>
#include <random.h>
#include <cmu-trace.h>
//#include <energy-model.h>

#define max(a,b)        ( (a) > (b) ? (a) : (b) )
#define CURRENT_TIME    Scheduler::instance().clock()

//#define DEBUG
//#define ERROR

#ifdef DEBUG
static int extra_route_reply = 0;
static int limit_route_request = 0;
static int route_request = 0;
#endif


/*
  TCL Hooks
*/


int hdr_aodv::offset_;
static class AODVHeaderClass : public PacketHeaderClass {
public:
        AODVHeaderClass() : PacketHeaderClass("PacketHeader/AODV",
                                              sizeof(hdr_all_aodv)) {
	  bind_offset(&hdr_aodv::offset_);
	} 
} class_rtProtoAODV_hdr;
/*AODVclass 只有两个函数,构造函数和creat函数*/
static class AODVclass : public TclClass {
public:
        AODVclass() : TclClass("Agent/AODV") {}
        TclObject* create(int argc, const char*const* argv) {
          assert(argc == 5);
          //return (new AODV((nsaddr_t) atoi(argv[4])));
	  return (new AODV((nsaddr_t) Address::instance().str2addr(argv[4])));
        }
} class_rtProtoAODV;

/*command函数实现了命令的分发*/
int
AODV::command(int argc, const char*const* argv) {
  if(argc == 2) {//命令的参数个数是2
  Tcl& tcl = Tcl::instance();
    
    if(strncasecmp(argv[1], "id", 2) == 0) {//命令所要求的操作为id
      tcl.resultf("%d", index);
      return TCL_OK;
    }
    
    if(strncasecmp(argv[1], "start", 2) == 0) {//命令所要求的操作为start
      btimer.handle((Event*) 0);

#ifndef AODV_LINK_LAYER_DETECTION
      htimer.handle((Event*) 0);
      ntimer.handle((Event*) 0);
#endif // LINK LAYER DETECTION

      rtimer.handle((Event*) 0);
      return TCL_OK;
     }               
  }
  else if(argc == 3) {//命令参数个数等于3
    if(strcmp(argv[1], "index") == 0) {//命令所要求的操作为index
      index = atoi(argv[2]);
      return TCL_OK;
    }
//命令所要求的操作为log-target或者tracetarget
    else if(strcmp(argv[1], "log-target") == 0 || strcmp(argv[1], "tracetarget") == 0) {
      logtarget = (Trace*) TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
      if(logtarget == 0)
	return TCL_ERROR;
      return TCL_OK;
    }
    else if(strcmp(argv[1], "drop-target") == 0) 
    {
    //命令所要求的操作为drop-target
    int stat = rqueue.command(argc,argv);
      if (stat != TCL_OK) return stat;
      return Agent::command(argc, argv);
    }

	//命令所要求的操作if-queue
    else if(strcmp(argv[1], "if-queue") == 0) {
    ifqueue = (PriQueue*) TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
      
      if(ifqueue == 0)
	return TCL_ERROR;
      return TCL_OK;
    }
	//命令所要求的操作为port-dmux
    else if (strcmp(argv[1], "port-dmux") == 0) {
    	dmux_ = (PortClassifier *)TclObject::lookup(argv[2]);
	if (dmux_ == 0) {
		fprintf (stderr, "%s: %s lookup of %s failed\n", __FILE__,
		argv[1], argv[2]);
		return TCL_ERROR;
	}
	return TCL_OK;
    }
  }
  return Agent::command(argc, argv);
}

/* 
   Constructor
*/

AODV::AODV(nsaddr_t id) : Agent(PT_AODV),
			  btimer(this), htimer(this), ntimer(this), 
			  rtimer(this), lrtimer(this), rqueue() {
 
                
  index = id;
  seqno = 2;
  bid = 1;

  LIST_INIT(&nbhead);
  LIST_INIT(&bihead);

  logtarget = 0;
  ifqueue = 0;
}

/*
  Timers
*/
//广播定时器
void
BroadcastTimer::handle(Event*) {
  agent->id_purge();
  Scheduler::instance().schedule(this, &intr, BCAST_ID_SAVE);
}
//hello报文定时器
void
HelloTimer::handle(Event*) {
   agent->sendHello();
   double interval = MinHelloInterval + 
                 ((MaxHelloInterval - MinHelloInterval) * Random::uniform());
   assert(interval >= 0);
   Scheduler::instance().schedule(this, &intr, interval);
}
//邻居定时器
void
NeighborTimer::handle(Event*) {
  agent->nb_purge();
  Scheduler::instance().schedule(this, &intr, HELLO_INTERVAL);
}
路由缓存定时器
void
RouteCacheTimer::handle(Event*) {
  agent->rt_purge();
#define FREQUENCY 0.5 // sec
  Scheduler::instance().schedule(this, &intr, FREQUENCY);
}
//路由缓存定时器
void
LocalRepairTimer::handle(Event* p)  {  // SRD: 5/4/99
aodv_rt_entry *rt;
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP( (Packet *)p);

   /* you get here after the timeout in a local repair attempt */
   /*	fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", __FUNCTION__); */


    rt = agent->rtable.rt_lookup(ih->daddr());
	
    if (rt && rt->rt_flags != RTF_UP) {
    // route is yet to be repaired
    // I will be conservative and bring down the route
    // and send route errors upstream.
    /* The following assert fails, not sure why */
    /* assert (rt->rt_flags == RTF_IN_REPAIR); */
		
      //rt->rt_seqno++;
      agent->rt_down(rt);
      // send RERR
#ifdef DEBUG
      fprintf(stderr,"Node %d: Dst - %d, failed local repair\n",index, rt->rt_dst);
#endif      
    }
    Packet::free((Packet *)p);
}


/*
   Broadcast ID Management  Functions
*/


void
AODV::id_insert(nsaddr_t id, u_int32_t bid) {
BroadcastID *b = new BroadcastID(id, bid);

 assert(b);
 b->expire = CURRENT_TIME + BCAST_ID_SAVE;
 LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&bihead, b, link);
}

/* SRD */
bool
AODV::id_lookup(nsaddr_t id, u_int32_t bid) {
BroadcastID *b = bihead.lh_first;
 
 // Search the list for a match of source and bid
 for( ; b; b = b->link.le_next) {
   if ((b->src == id) && (b->id == bid))
     return true;     
 }
 return false;
}

void
AODV::id_purge() {
BroadcastID *b = bihead.lh_first;
BroadcastID *bn;
double now = CURRENT_TIME;

 for(; b; b = bn) {
   bn = b->link.le_next;
   if(b->expire <= now) {
     LIST_REMOVE(b,link);
     delete b;
   }
 }
}

/*
  Helper Functions
*/

double
AODV::PerHopTime(aodv_rt_entry *rt) {
int num_non_zero = 0, i;
double total_latency = 0.0;

 if (!rt)
   return ((double) NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME );
	
 for (i=0; i < MAX_HISTORY; i++) {
   if (rt->rt_disc_latency[i] > 0.0) {
      num_non_zero++;
      total_latency += rt->rt_disc_latency[i];
   }
 }
 if (num_non_zero > 0)
   return(total_latency / (double) num_non_zero);
 else
   return((double) NODE_TRAVERSAL_TIME);

}

/*
  Link Failure Management Functions
*/

static void
aodv_rt_failed_callback(Packet *p, void *arg) {
  ((AODV*) arg)->rt_ll_failed(p);
}

/*
 * This routine is invoked when the link-layer reports a route failed.
 */
 /*邻居链路down掉,处理*/
void
AODV::rt_ll_failed(Packet *p) {
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt;
nsaddr_t broken_nbr = ch->next_hop_;//记录下一跳邻居的地址

#ifndef AODV_LINK_LAYER_DETECTION
 drop(p, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
#else 

 /*
  * Non-data packets and Broadcast Packets can be dropped.
  */
  //如果是非数据或者广播报文,则可以直接丢弃
  if(! DATA_PACKET(ch->ptype()) ||
     (u_int32_t) ih->daddr() == IP_BROADCAST) {
    drop(p, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
    return;
  }
  log_link_broke(p);
  //如果不存在到达目的节点的路径,丢弃报文
	if((rt = rtable.rt_lookup(ih->daddr())) == 0) {
    drop(p, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
    return;
  }
  log_link_del(ch->next_hop_);

#ifdef AODV_LOCAL_REPAIR
  /* if the broken link is closer to the dest than source, 
     attempt a local repair. Otherwise, bring down the route. */

//如果转发的跳数大于到达目的节点的跳数,则进行路由修复;否则丢弃通过此邻居的
//数据并且删除此邻居
  if (ch->num_forwards() > rt->rt_hops) {
    local_rt_repair(rt, p); // local repair
    // retrieve all the packets in the ifq using this link,
    // queue the packets for which local repair is done, 
    return;
  }
  else	
#endif // LOCAL REPAIR	

  {
    drop(p, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
    // Do the same thing for other packets in the interface queue using the
    // broken link -Mahesh
while((p = ifqueue->filter(broken_nbr))) {
     drop(p, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
    }	
    nb_delete(broken_nbr);
  }

#endif // LINK LAYER DETECTION
}
/*当发现邻居失效的时候,就会调用此函数*/
void
AODV::handle_link_failure(nsaddr_t id) {
aodv_rt_entry *rt, *rtn;
Packet *rerr = Packet::alloc();
struct hdr_aodv_error *re = HDR_AODV_ERROR(rerr);

 re->DestCount = 0;
 //查找通过此邻居节点到达目的的路由,
 for(rt = rtable.head(); rt; rt = rtn) {  // for each rt entry
   rtn = rt->rt_link.le_next; 
   //如果跳数不是无限大并且下一跳就是失效的邻居
   if ((rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2) && (rt->rt_nexthop == id) ) {
     assert (rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
     assert((rt->rt_seqno%2) == 0);
     rt->rt_seqno++;
     re->unreachable_dst[re->DestCount] = rt->rt_dst;
     re->unreachable_dst_seqno[re->DestCount] = rt->rt_seqno;
#ifdef DEBUG
     fprintf(stderr, "%s(%f): %d\t(%d\t%u\t%d)\n", __FUNCTION__, CURRENT_TIME,
		     index, re->unreachable_dst[re->DestCount],
		     re->unreachable_dst_seqno[re->DestCount], rt->rt_nexthop);
#endif // DEBUG
     re->DestCount += 1;
     rt_down(rt);//将此路由down掉
   }
   // remove the lost neighbor from all the precursor lists
   rt->pc_delete(id);//删除此路由的前缀列表
 }   
/*如果存在通过此邻居到达目的节点的路由,则发送错误报文*/
 if (re->DestCount > 0) {
#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "%s(%f): %d\tsending RERR...\n", __FUNCTION__, CURRENT_TIME, index);
#endif // DEBUG
   sendError(rerr, false);
 }
 else {
   Packet::free(rerr);
 }
}

void
AODV::local_rt_repair(aodv_rt_entry *rt, Packet *p) {
#ifdef DEBUG
  fprintf(stderr,"%s: Dst - %d\n", __FUNCTION__, rt->rt_dst); 
#endif  
  // Buffer the packet 
  rqueue.enque(p);

  // mark the route as under repair 
  rt->rt_flags = RTF_IN_REPAIR;

  sendRequest(rt->rt_dst);

  // set up a timer interrupt
  Scheduler::instance().schedule(&lrtimer, p->copy(), rt->rt_req_timeout);
}
/*更新路由条目*/
void
AODV::rt_update(aodv_rt_entry *rt, u_int32_t seqnum, u_int16_t metric,
	       	nsaddr_t nexthop, double expire_time) {

     rt->rt_seqno = seqnum;
     rt->rt_hops = metric;
     rt->rt_flags = RTF_UP;
     rt->rt_nexthop = nexthop;
     rt->rt_expire = expire_time;
}
/*将此路由条目down掉*/
void
AODV::rt_down(aodv_rt_entry *rt) {
  /*
   *  Make sure that you don't "down" a route more than once.
   */

  if(rt->rt_flags == RTF_DOWN) {
    return;
  }

  // assert (rt->rt_seqno%2); // is the seqno odd?
  rt->rt_last_hop_count = rt->rt_hops;
  rt->rt_hops = INFINITY2;
  rt->rt_flags = RTF_DOWN;
  rt->rt_nexthop = 0;
  rt->rt_expire = 0;

} /* rt_down function */

/*
  Route Handling Functions
*/

void
AODV::rt_resolve(Packet *p) {
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt;

 /*
  *  Set the transmit failure callback.  That
  *  won't change.
  */
  //这是一个指针,具体请看另一篇博客
 ch->xmit_failure_ = aodv_rt_failed_callback;
 ch->xmit_failure_data_ = (void*) this;
	rt = rtable.rt_lookup(ih->daddr());
 if(rt == 0) {
	  rt = rtable.rt_add(ih->daddr());
 }

 /*
  * If the route is up, forward the packet 
  */
	//如果存在路由,则转发
 if(rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP) {
   assert(rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2);
   forward(rt, p, NO_DELAY);
 }
 /*
  *  if I am the source of the packet, then do a Route Request.
  */
	else if(ih->saddr() == index) 
	// {
	//如果是源节点且没有到达目的节点的路由,缓存数分组
	//发送路由请求
   rqueue.enque(p);
   sendRequest(rt->rt_dst);
 }
 /*
  *	A local repair is in progress. Buffer the packet. 
  */
  //如果此路由处于修复状态,则缓存分组
 else if (rt->rt_flags == RTF_IN_REPAIR) {
   rqueue.enque(p);
 }

 /*
  * I am trying to forward a packet for someone else to which
  * I don't have a route.
  */
  //否则发送错误报文
 else {
 Packet *rerr = Packet::alloc();
 struct hdr_aodv_error *re = HDR_AODV_ERROR(rerr);
 /* 
  * For now, drop the packet and send error upstream.
  * Now the route errors are broadcast to upstream
  * neighbors - Mahesh 09/11/99
  */	
 
   assert (rt->rt_flags == RTF_DOWN);
   re->DestCount = 0;
   re->unreachable_dst[re->DestCount] = rt->rt_dst;
   re->unreachable_dst_seqno[re->DestCount] = rt->rt_seqno;
   re->DestCount += 1;
#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "%s: sending RERR...\n", __FUNCTION__);
#endif
   sendError(rerr, false);

   drop(p, DROP_RTR_NO_ROUTE);
 }

}
/*定时查看路由缓存条目*/
void
AODV::rt_purge() {
aodv_rt_entry *rt, *rtn;
double now = CURRENT_TIME;
double delay = 0.0;
Packet *p;

 for(rt = rtable.head(); rt; rt = rtn) {  // for each rt entry
   rtn = rt->rt_link.le_next;
   //如果此路由条目标注为有效,但是生存时间为0
   //丢弃前往目的分组,并且将此路由条目down掉
   if ((rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP) && (rt->rt_expire < now)) {
   // if a valid route has expired, purge all packets from 
   // send buffer and invalidate the route.                    
	assert(rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2);
     while((p = rqueue.deque(rt->rt_dst))) {
#ifdef DEBUG
       fprintf(stderr, "%s: calling drop()\n",
                       __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG
       drop(p, DROP_RTR_NO_ROUTE);
     }
     rt->rt_seqno++;
     assert (rt->rt_seqno%2);
     rt_down(rt);
   }
   //如果此路由条目并没有过期,则可以发送分组
   else if (rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP) {
   // If the route is not expired,
   // and there are packets in the sendbuffer waiting,
   // forward them. This should not be needed, but this extra 
   // check does no harm.
     assert(rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2);
     while((p = rqueue.deque(rt->rt_dst))) {
       forward (rt, p, delay);
       delay += ARP_DELAY;
     }
   } 
   //如果此路由条目已经down掉,但是有前往目的的分组,则发送路由请求
   else if (rqueue.find(rt->rt_dst))
   // If the route is down and 
   // if there is a packet for this destination waiting in
   // the sendbuffer, then send out route request. sendRequest
   // will check whether it is time to really send out request
   // or not.
   // This may not be crucial to do it here, as each generated 
   // packet will do a sendRequest anyway.

     sendRequest(rt->rt_dst); 
   }

}

/*
  Packet Reception Routines
*/

void
AODV::recv(Packet *p, Handler*) {
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);

 assert(initialized());
 //assert(p->incoming == 0);
 // XXXXX NOTE: use of incoming flag has been depracated; In order to track direction of pkt flow, direction_ in hdr_cmn is used instead. see packet.h for details.
//如果分组类型是AODV类型,则交给recvAodv函数
 if(ch->ptype() == PT_AODV) {
   ih->ttl_ -= 1;
   recvAODV(p);
   return;
 }


 /*
  *  Must be a packet I'm originating...
  */
  //如果是我发送的报文,加上包头,ch->num_forward()是转发的跳数
if((ih->saddr() == index) && (ch->num_forwards() == 0)) {
 /*
  * Add the IP Header
  */
   ch->size() += IP_HDR_LEN;
   // Added by Parag Dadhania && John Novatnack to handle broadcasting
   if ( (u_int32_t)ih->daddr() != IP_BROADCAST)
     ih->ttl_ = NETWORK_DIAMETER;
}
 /*
  *  I received a packet that I sent.  Probably
  *  a routing loop.
  */
  //出现路由环路,丢弃
else if(ih->saddr() == index) {
   drop(p, DROP_RTR_ROUTE_LOOP);
   return;
 }
 /*
  *  Packet I'm forwarding...
  */
 else {
 /*
  *  Check the TTL.  If it is zero, then discard.
  */
  //如果ttl值为零,丢弃
   if(--ih->ttl_ == 0) {
     drop(p, DROP_RTR_TTL);
     return;
   }
 }
// Added by Parag Dadhania && John Novatnack to handle broadcasting
//如果不是广播报文,交给re_resolve函数处理;如果是广播报文,则转发
 if ( (u_int32_t)ih->daddr() != IP_BROADCAST)
   rt_resolve(p);
 else
   forward((aodv_rt_entry*) 0, p, NO_DELAY);
}


void
AODV::recvAODV(Packet *p) {
struct hdr_aodv *ah = HDR_AODV(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);

 assert(ih->sport() == RT_PORT);
 assert(ih->dport() == RT_PORT);

 /*
  * Incoming Packets.
  */
 switch(ah->ah_type) {

 case AODVTYPE_RREQ:
   recvRequest(p);
   break;

 case AODVTYPE_RREP:
   recvReply(p);
   break;

 case AODVTYPE_RERR:
   recvError(p);
   break;

 case AODVTYPE_HELLO:
   recvHello(p);
   break;
        
 default:
   fprintf(stderr, "Invalid AODV type (%x)\n", ah->ah_type);
   exit(1);
 }

}


void
AODV::recvRequest(Packet *p) {
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_request *rq = HDR_AODV_REQUEST(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt;

  /*
   * Drop if:
   *      - I'm the source
   *      - I recently heard this request.
   */
/*如果此节点就是源节点,出现环路,丢弃路由请求报文*/
  if(rq->rq_src == index) {
#ifdef DEBUG
    fprintf(stderr, "%s: got my own REQUEST\n", __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG
    Packet::free(p);
    return;
  } 
/*如果已经收到了源地址和请求序列号相等的请求报文,丢弃*/
 if (id_lookup(rq->rq_src, rq->rq_bcast_id)) {

#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "%s: discarding request\n", __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG
 
   Packet::free(p);
   return;
 }

 /*
  * Cache the broadcast ID
  */
  /*缓存此路由请求*/
 id_insert(rq->rq_src, rq->rq_bcast_id);



 /* 
  * We are either going to forward the REQUEST or generate a
  * REPLY. Before we do anything, we make sure that the REVERSE
  * route is in the route table.
  */
  //建立反向路径
 aodv_rt_entry *rt0; // rt0 is the reverse route 
   
   rt0 = rtable.rt_lookup(rq->rq_src);
   if(rt0 == 0) { /* if not in the route table */
   // create an entry for the reverse route.
     rt0 = rtable.rt_add(rq->rq_src);
   }
  //更新此路由条目的生存时间
   rt0->rt_expire = max(rt0->rt_expire, (CURRENT_TIME + REV_ROUTE_LIFE));
/*如果请求序列号大于路由序列号或者两者序列号相等但是跳数
比源路由跳数小,则更新*/
   if ( (rq->rq_src_seqno > rt0->rt_seqno ) ||
    	((rq->rq_src_seqno == rt0->rt_seqno) && 
	 (rq->rq_hop_count < rt0->rt_hops)) ) {
   // If we have a fresher seq no. or lesser #hops for the 
   // same seq no., update the rt entry. Else don't bother.
rt_update(rt0, rq->rq_src_seqno, rq->rq_hop_count, ih->saddr(),
     	       max(rt0->rt_expire, (CURRENT_TIME + REV_ROUTE_LIFE)) );
   /*如果此前请求过该路由条目,则更新信息*/
     if (rt0->rt_req_timeout > 0.0) {
     // Reset the soft state and 
     // Set expiry time to CURRENT_TIME + ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT
     // This is because route is used in the forward direction,
     // but only sources get benefited by this change
       rt0->rt_req_cnt = 0;
       rt0->rt_req_timeout = 0.0; 
       rt0->rt_req_last_ttl = rq->rq_hop_count;
       rt0->rt_expire = CURRENT_TIME + ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT;
     }

     /* Find out whether any buffered packet can benefit from the 
      * reverse route.
      * May need some change in the following code - Mahesh 09/11/99
      */
      /*如果有到反向路径的分组报文,则发送*/
     assert (rt0->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
     Packet *buffered_pkt;
     while ((buffered_pkt = rqueue.deque(rt0->rt_dst))) {
       if (rt0 && (rt0->rt_flags == RTF_UP)) {
	assert(rt0->rt_hops != INFINITY2);
         forward(rt0, buffered_pkt, NO_DELAY);
       }
     }
   } 
   // End for putting reverse route in rt table


 /*
  * We have taken care of the reverse route stuff.
  * Now see whether we can send a route reply. 
  */
//寻找到目的节点的路由
 rt = rtable.rt_lookup(rq->rq_dst);

 // First check if I am the destination ..
/*如果本节点就是目的节点,直接发送路由应答报文*/
 if(rq->rq_dst == index) {

#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "%d - %s: destination sending reply\n",
                   index, __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG

               
   // Just to be safe, I use the max. Somebody may have
   // incremented the dst seqno.
   seqno = max(seqno, rq->rq_dst_seqno)+1;
   if (seqno%2) seqno++;

   sendReply(rq->rq_src,           // IP Destination
             1,                    // Hop Count
             index,                // Dest IP Address
             seqno,                // Dest Sequence Num
             MY_ROUTE_TIMEOUT,     // Lifetime
             rq->rq_timestamp);    // timestamp
 
   Packet::free(p);
 }

 // I am not the destination, but I may have a fresh enough route.
/*如果不是目的节点,但是有到目的节点的路径,也发送路由应答报文*/
 else if (rt && (rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2) && 
	  	(rt->rt_seqno >= rq->rq_dst_seqno) ) {

   //assert (rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
   assert(rq->rq_dst == rt->rt_dst);
   //assert ((rt->rt_seqno%2) == 0);	// is the seqno even?
   sendReply(rq->rq_src,
             rt->rt_hops + 1,
             rq->rq_dst,
             rt->rt_seqno,
	     (u_int32_t) (rt->rt_expire - CURRENT_TIME),
	     //             rt->rt_expire - CURRENT_TIME,
             rq->rq_timestamp);
   // Insert nexthops to RREQ source and RREQ destination in the
   // precursor lists of destination and source respectively
   rt->pc_insert(rt0->rt_nexthop); // 加入前缀列表
   rt0->pc_insert(rt->rt_nexthop); // 加入前缀列表

#ifdef RREQ_GRAT_RREP  

   sendReply(rq->rq_dst,
             rq->rq_hop_count,
             rq->rq_src,
             rq->rq_src_seqno,
	     (u_int32_t) (rt->rt_expire - CURRENT_TIME),
	     //             rt->rt_expire - CURRENT_TIME,
             rq->rq_timestamp);
#endif
   
// TODO: send grat RREP to dst if G flag set in RREQ using rq->rq_src_seqno, rq->rq_hop_counT
   
// DONE: Included gratuitous replies to be sent as per IETF aodv draft specification. As of now, G flag has not been dynamically used and is always set or reset in aodv-packet.h --- Anant Utgikar, 09/16/02.

	Packet::free(p);
 }
 /*
  * Can't reply. So forward the  Route Request
  */
  //不能应答此报文,则继续广播
 else {
   ih->saddr() = index;
   ih->daddr() = IP_BROADCAST;
   rq->rq_hop_count += 1;
   // Maximum sequence number seen en route
   if (rt) rq->rq_dst_seqno = max(rt->rt_seqno, rq->rq_dst_seqno);
   forward((aodv_rt_entry*) 0, p, DELAY);
 }

}


void
AODV::recvReply(Packet *p) {
//struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_reply *rp = HDR_AODV_REPLY(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt;
char suppress_reply = 0;
double delay = 0.0;
	
#ifdef DEBUG
 fprintf(stderr, "%d - %s: received a REPLY\n", index, __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG


 /*
  *  Got a reply. So reset the "soft state" maintained for 
  *  route requests in the request table. We don't really have
  *  have a separate request table. It is just a part of the
  *  routing table itself. 
  */
 // Note that rp_dst is the dest of the data packets, not the
 // the dest of the reply, which is the src of the data packets.

 rt = rtable.rt_lookup(rp->rp_dst);//建立反向路径
        
 /*
  *  If I don't have a rt entry to this host... adding
  */
 if(rt == 0) {
   rt = rtable.rt_add(rp->rp_dst);
 }

 /*
  * Add a forward route table entry... here I am following 
  * Perkins-Royer AODV paper almost literally - SRD 5/99
  */
/*如果应答报文中目的序列号大于路由序列号或者
 两者序列号相等但是跳数较小,则更新路由表*/
 if ( (rt->rt_seqno < rp->rp_dst_seqno) ||   // newer route 
      ((rt->rt_seqno == rp->rp_dst_seqno) &&  
       (rt->rt_hops > rp->rp_hop_count)) ) { // shorter or better route
	
  // Update the rt entry 
  rt_update(rt, rp->rp_dst_seqno, rp->rp_hop_count,
		rp->rp_src, CURRENT_TIME + rp->rp_lifetime);

  // reset the soft state
  rt->rt_req_cnt = 0;//路由请求次数归零
  rt->rt_req_timeout = 0.0; //路由请求剩余时间归零
  rt->rt_req_last_ttl = rp->rp_hop_count;
  /*如果此节点是目的节点*/
if (ih->daddr() == index) { // If I am the original source
  // Update the route discovery latency statistics
  // rp->rp_timestamp is the time of request origination
		
    rt->rt_disc_latency[rt->hist_indx] = (CURRENT_TIME - rp->rp_timestamp)
                                         / (double) rp->rp_hop_count;
    // increment indx for next time
    rt->hist_indx = (rt->hist_indx + 1) % MAX_HISTORY;
  }	

  /*
   * Send all packets queued in the sendbuffer destined for
   * this destination. 
   * XXX - observe the "second" use of p.
   */
   /*如果有到反向路径的数据包,则发送*/
  Packet *buf_pkt;
  while((buf_pkt = rqueue.deque(rt->rt_dst))) {
    if(rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2) {
          assert (rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
    // Delay them a little to help ARP. Otherwise ARP 
    // may drop packets. -SRD 5/23/99
      forward(rt, buf_pkt, delay);
      delay += ARP_DELAY;
    }
  }
 }
 else {
  suppress_reply = 1;//序列号过小且没有更小的跳数
 }

 /*
  * If reply is for me, discard it.
  */

if(ih->daddr() == index || suppress_reply) 
 {//如果此节点是源节点或者应答报文不够新且没有更小的跳数
   Packet::free(p);
 }
 /*
  * Otherwise, forward the Route Reply.
  */
 else {
 // Find the rt entry
aodv_rt_entry *rt0 = rtable.rt_lookup(ih->daddr());
   // If the rt is up, forward
   if(rt0 && (rt0->rt_hops != INFINITY2)) 
    {
   //如果存在到源节点的路径,则转发应答报文,否则丢弃应答报文
        assert (rt0->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
     rp->rp_hop_count += 1;
     rp->rp_src = index;
     forward(rt0, p, NO_DELAY);
     // Insert the nexthop towards the RREQ source to 
     // the precursor list of the RREQ destination
     rt->pc_insert(rt0->rt_nexthop); // nexthop to RREQ source
     
   }
   else {//
   // I don't know how to forward .. drop the reply. 
#ifdef DEBUG
     fprintf(stderr, "%s: dropping Route Reply\n", __FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG
     drop(p, DROP_RTR_NO_ROUTE);
   }
 }
}

/*从邻居那里收到错误分组,检查自己路由表是否有通过此邻居到达目的地的
路由条目,如果有,则将此路由删除,并继续向邻居广播错误分组*/
void
AODV::recvError(Packet *p) {
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_error *re = HDR_AODV_ERROR(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt;
u_int8_t i;
Packet *rerr = Packet::alloc();
struct hdr_aodv_error *nre = HDR_AODV_ERROR(rerr);

 nre->DestCount = 0;
/*遍历错误分组中每一个不可达路由*/
 for (i=0; i<re->DestCount; i++) {
 // For each unreachable destination
   rt = rtable.rt_lookup(re->unreachable_dst[i]);
 /*是否存在经过发送错误分组的邻居的路由*/
   if ( rt && (rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2) &&
	(rt->rt_nexthop == ih->saddr()) &&
     	(rt->rt_seqno <= re->unreachable_dst_seqno[i]) ) {
	assert(rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
	assert((rt->rt_seqno%2) == 0); // 奇数代表无穷大,无效的意思
#ifdef DEBUG
     fprintf(stderr, "%s(%f): %d\t(%d\t%u\t%d)\t(%d\t%u\t%d)\n", __FUNCTION__,CURRENT_TIME,
		     index, rt->rt_dst, rt->rt_seqno, rt->rt_nexthop,
		     re->unreachable_dst[i],re->unreachable_dst_seqno[i],
	             ih->saddr());
#endif // DEBUG
     	rt->rt_seqno = re->unreachable_dst_seqno[i];
     	rt_down(rt);//将此路由down掉

   // Not sure whether this is the right thing to do
   /*查看队列中是否有下一跳是此邻居的分组
   若有的话,直接丢包;具体请看queue/priqueue.cc的filter函数*/
   Packet *pkt;
	while((pkt = ifqueue->filter(ih->saddr()))) {
        	drop(pkt, DROP_RTR_MAC_CALLBACK);
     	}

     // if precursor list non-empty add to RERR and delete the precursor list
     /*如果此路由的前缀列表非空,将此节点不可达的目的地记录在新的路由分组中
	 并且删除此路由的前缀列表*/
     	if (!rt->pc_empty()) {
     		nre->unreachable_dst[nre->DestCount] = rt->rt_dst;
     		nre->unreachable_dst_seqno[nre->DestCount] = rt->rt_seqno;
     		nre->DestCount += 1;
		rt->pc_delete();
     	}
   }
 } 
/*如果此节点有不可达路由,则继续广播错误分组*/
 if (nre->DestCount > 0) {
#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "%s(%f): %d\t sending RERR...\n", __FUNCTION__, CURRENT_TIME, index);
#endif // DEBUG
   sendError(rerr);
 }
 else {
   Packet::free(rerr);
 }

 Packet::free(p);
}


/*
   Packet Transmission Routines
*/

void
AODV::forward(aodv_rt_entry *rt, Packet *p, double delay) {
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
/*如果跳数为零,直接丢弃*/
 if(ih->ttl_ == 0) {

#ifdef DEBUG
  fprintf(stderr, "%s: calling drop()\n", __PRETTY_FUNCTION__);
#endif // DEBUG
 
  drop(p, DROP_RTR_TTL);
  return;
 }
/*如果不是AODV数据包并且链路方向是上行并且是广播包或者此节点就是目的地址*/
 if (ch->ptype() != PT_AODV && ch->direction() == hdr_cmn::UP &&
	((u_int32_t)ih->daddr() == IP_BROADCAST)
		|| ((u_int32_t)ih->daddr() == here_.addr_)) {
	dmux_->recv(p,0);//交给分类器
	return;
 }

 if (rt) {//如果存在去往目的的路由,设置一系列参数
   assert(rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP);
   rt->rt_expire = CURRENT_TIME + ACTIVE_ROUTE_TIMEOUT;
   ch->next_hop_ = rt->rt_nexthop;
   ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_INET;
   ch->direction() = hdr_cmn::DOWN;       //important: change the packet's direction
 }
 else { // if it is a broadcast packet
   // assert(ch->ptype() == PT_AODV); // maybe a diff pkt type like gaf
   assert(ih->daddr() == (nsaddr_t) IP_BROADCAST);//如果这是一个广播报文
   ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_NONE;
   ch->direction() = hdr_cmn::DOWN;       //important: change the packet's direction
 }

if (ih->daddr() == (nsaddr_t) IP_BROADCAST) {//广播报文
 // If it is a broadcast packet
   assert(rt == 0);
   /*
    *  Jitter the sending of broadcast packets by 10ms
    */
   Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p,
      				   0.01 * Random::uniform());//加入定时器
 }
 else { // 非广播报文
   if(delay > 0.0) {
     Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, delay);
   }
   else {
   // Not a broadcast packet, no delay, send immediately
     Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.);
   }
 }

}


void
AODV::sendRequest(nsaddr_t dst) {
// Allocate a RREQ packet 
Packet *p = Packet::alloc();
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_request *rq = HDR_AODV_REQUEST(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt = rtable.rt_lookup(dst);

 assert(rt);

 /*
  *  Rate limit sending of Route Requests. We are very conservative
  *  about sending out route requests. 
  */
 //如果有到目的节点的路由,则终止请求
 if (rt->rt_flags == RTF_UP) {
   assert(rt->rt_hops != INFINITY2);
   Packet::free((Packet *)p);
   return;
 }
//如果请求时间还有到,则不发送
 if (rt->rt_req_timeout > CURRENT_TIME) {
   Packet::free((Packet *)p);
   return;
 }

 // rt_req_cnt is the no. of times we did network-wide broadcast
 // RREQ_RETRIES is the maximum number we will allow before 
 // going to a long timeout.
//如果请求次数大于最大的发送请求次数,则丢掉分组,不发送请求
 if (rt->rt_req_cnt > RREQ_RETRIES) {
   rt->rt_req_timeout = CURRENT_TIME + MAX_RREQ_TIMEOUT;
   rt->rt_req_cnt = 0;
 Packet *buf_pkt;
   while ((buf_pkt = rqueue.deque(rt->rt_dst))) {
       drop(buf_pkt, DROP_RTR_NO_ROUTE);
   }
   Packet::free((Packet *)p);
   return;
 }

#ifdef DEBUG
   fprintf(stderr, "(%2d) - %2d sending Route Request, dst: %d\n",
                    ++route_request, index, rt->rt_dst);
#endif // DEBUG

 // Determine the TTL to be used this time. 
 // Dynamic TTL evaluation - SRD

 rt->rt_req_last_ttl = max(rt->rt_req_last_ttl,rt->rt_last_hop_count);
//路由请求的环搜索
//第一次广播请求,选择初始跳数;随后逐渐扩大
 if (0 == rt->rt_req_last_ttl) {
 // first time query broadcast
   ih->ttl_ = TTL_START;
 }
 else {
 // Expanding ring search.
   if (rt->rt_req_last_ttl < TTL_THRESHOLD)
     ih->ttl_ = rt->rt_req_last_ttl + TTL_INCREMENT;
   else {
   // network-wide broadcast
     ih->ttl_ = NETWORK_DIAMETER;
     rt->rt_req_cnt += 1;
   }
 }

 // remember the TTL used  for the next time
 rt->rt_req_last_ttl = ih->ttl_;//为下次使用做记录

 // PerHopTime is the roundtrip time per hop for route requests.
 // The factor 2.0 is just to be safe .. SRD 5/22/99
 // Also note that we are making timeouts to be larger if we have 
 // done network wide broadcast before. 

 rt->rt_req_timeout = 2.0 * (double) ih->ttl_ * PerHopTime(rt); 
 if (rt->rt_req_cnt > 0)
   rt->rt_req_timeout *= rt->rt_req_cnt;
 rt->rt_req_timeout += CURRENT_TIME;

 // Don't let the timeout to be too large, however .. SRD 6/8/99
 if (rt->rt_req_timeout > CURRENT_TIME + MAX_RREQ_TIMEOUT)
   rt->rt_req_timeout = CURRENT_TIME + MAX_RREQ_TIMEOUT;
 rt->rt_expire = 0;

#ifdef DEBUG
 fprintf(stderr, "(%2d) - %2d sending Route Request, dst: %d, tout %f ms\n",
	         ++route_request, 
		 index, rt->rt_dst, 
		 rt->rt_req_timeout - CURRENT_TIME);
#endif	// DEBUG
	

 // Fill out the RREQ packet 
 // ch->uid() = 0;
 ch->ptype() = PT_AODV;
 ch->size() = IP_HDR_LEN + rq->size();
 ch->iface() = -2;
 ch->error() = 0;
 ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_NONE;
 ch->prev_hop_ = index;          // AODV hack

 ih->saddr() = index;
 ih->daddr() = IP_BROADCAST;
 ih->sport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->dport() = RT_PORT;

 // Fill up some more fields. 
 rq->rq_type = AODVTYPE_RREQ;
 rq->rq_hop_count = 1;
 rq->rq_bcast_id = bid++;
 rq->rq_dst = dst;
 rq->rq_dst_seqno = (rt ? rt->rt_seqno : 0);
 rq->rq_src = index;
 seqno += 2;
 assert ((seqno%2) == 0);
 rq->rq_src_seqno = seqno;
 rq->rq_timestamp = CURRENT_TIME;

 Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.);

}

void
AODV::sendReply(nsaddr_t ipdst, u_int32_t hop_count, nsaddr_t rpdst,
                u_int32_t rpseq, u_int32_t lifetime, double timestamp) {
Packet *p = Packet::alloc();
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_reply *rp = HDR_AODV_REPLY(p);
aodv_rt_entry *rt = rtable.rt_lookup(ipdst);

#ifdef DEBUG
fprintf(stderr, "sending Reply from %d at %.2f\n", index, Scheduler::instance().clock());
#endif // DEBUG
 assert(rt);

 rp->rp_type = AODVTYPE_RREP;
 //rp->rp_flags = 0x00;
 rp->rp_hop_count = hop_count;
 rp->rp_dst = rpdst;
 rp->rp_dst_seqno = rpseq;
 rp->rp_src = index;
 rp->rp_lifetime = lifetime;
 rp->rp_timestamp = timestamp;
   
 // ch->uid() = 0;
 ch->ptype() = PT_AODV;
 ch->size() = IP_HDR_LEN + rp->size();
 ch->iface() = -2;
 ch->error() = 0;
 ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_INET;
 ch->next_hop_ = rt->rt_nexthop;
 ch->prev_hop_ = index;          // AODV hack
 ch->direction() = hdr_cmn::DOWN;

 ih->saddr() = index;
 ih->daddr() = ipdst;
 ih->sport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->dport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->ttl_ = NETWORK_DIAMETER;

 Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.);

}

void
AODV::sendError(Packet *p, bool jitter) {
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_error *re = HDR_AODV_ERROR(p);
    
#ifdef ERROR
fprintf(stderr, "sending Error from %d at %.2f\n", index, Scheduler::instance().clock());
#endif // DEBUG

 re->re_type = AODVTYPE_RERR;
 //re->reserved[0] = 0x00; re->reserved[1] = 0x00;
 // DestCount and list of unreachable destinations are already filled

 // ch->uid() = 0;
 ch->ptype() = PT_AODV;
 ch->size() = IP_HDR_LEN + re->size();
 ch->iface() = -2;
 ch->error() = 0;
 ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_NONE;
 ch->next_hop_ = 0;
 ch->prev_hop_ = index;          // AODV hack
 ch->direction() = hdr_cmn::DOWN;       //important: change the packet's direction

 ih->saddr() = index;
 ih->daddr() = IP_BROADCAST;
 ih->sport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->dport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->ttl_ = 1;

 // Do we need any jitter? Yes
 if (jitter)
 	Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.01*Random::uniform());
 else
 	Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.0);

}


/*
   Neighbor Management Functions
*/

void
AODV::sendHello() {
Packet *p = Packet::alloc();
struct hdr_cmn *ch = HDR_CMN(p);
struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_reply *rh = HDR_AODV_REPLY(p);

#ifdef DEBUG
fprintf(stderr, "sending Hello from %d at %.2f\n", index, Scheduler::instance().clock());
#endif // DEBUG

 rh->rp_type = AODVTYPE_HELLO;
 //rh->rp_flags = 0x00;
 rh->rp_hop_count = 1;
 rh->rp_dst = index;
 rh->rp_dst_seqno = seqno;
 rh->rp_lifetime = (1 + ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS) * HELLO_INTERVAL;

 // ch->uid() = 0;
 ch->ptype() = PT_AODV;
 ch->size() = IP_HDR_LEN + rh->size();
 ch->iface() = -2;
 ch->error() = 0;
 ch->addr_type() = NS_AF_NONE;
 ch->prev_hop_ = index;          // AODV hack

 ih->saddr() = index;
 ih->daddr() = IP_BROADCAST;
 ih->sport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->dport() = RT_PORT;
 ih->ttl_ = 1;

 Scheduler::instance().schedule(target_, p, 0.0);
}


void
AODV::recvHello(Packet *p) {
//struct hdr_ip *ih = HDR_IP(p);
struct hdr_aodv_reply *rp = HDR_AODV_REPLY(p);
AODV_Neighbor *nb;

 nb = nb_lookup(rp->rp_dst);
 if(nb == 0) {
   nb_insert(rp->rp_dst);
 }
 else {
   nb->nb_expire = CURRENT_TIME +
                   (1.5 * ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL);
 }

 Packet::free(p);
}

void
AODV::nb_insert(nsaddr_t id) {
AODV_Neighbor *nb = new AODV_Neighbor(id);

 assert(nb);
 nb->nb_expire = CURRENT_TIME +
                (1.5 * ALLOWED_HELLO_LOSS * HELLO_INTERVAL);
 LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&nbhead, nb, nb_link);
 seqno += 2;             // set of neighbors changed
 assert ((seqno%2) == 0);
}


AODV_Neighbor*
AODV::nb_lookup(nsaddr_t id) {
AODV_Neighbor *nb = nbhead.lh_first;

 for(; nb; nb = nb->nb_link.le_next) {
   if(nb->nb_addr == id) break;
 }
 return nb;
}


/*
 * Called when we receive *explicit* notification that a Neighbor
 * is no longer reachable.
 */
void
AODV::nb_delete(nsaddr_t id) {
AODV_Neighbor *nb = nbhead.lh_first;

 log_link_del(id);
 seqno += 2;     // Set of neighbors changed
 assert ((seqno%2) == 0);

 for(; nb; nb = nb->nb_link.le_next) {
   if(nb->nb_addr == id) {
     LIST_REMOVE(nb,nb_link);
     delete nb;
     break;
   }
 }

 handle_link_failure(id);

}


/*
 * Purges all timed-out Neighbor Entries - runs every
 * HELLO_INTERVAL * 1.5 seconds.
 */
void
AODV::nb_purge() {
AODV_Neighbor *nb = nbhead.lh_first;
AODV_Neighbor *nbn;
double now = CURRENT_TIME;

 for(; nb; nb = nbn) {
   nbn = nb->nb_link.le_next;
   if(nb->nb_expire <= now) {
     nb_delete(nb->nb_addr);
   }
 }

}

作者:应律
来源链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/yue-/archive/2012/05/28/6260065.html

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