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ansible的剧本

ansible的playbook的介绍-yaml

ansible的playbook是使用yaml语言写的

YAML标记语言介绍
YAML是一个可读性高的用来表达资料序列的格式。YAML参考了其他多种语言包括XML、C语言、Python、Perl以及电子邮件格式RFC2822等。Clark Evans在2001年在首次发表了这种语言另外Ingy dtNet与Oren Ben-Kiki也是这语言的共同设计者。 
YAML Ain't Markup Language即YAML不是XML。不过在开发的这种语言时YAML的意思其实是"Yet Another Markup Language"仍是一种标记语言。其特性 
YAML的可读性好 
YAML和脚本语言的交互性好 
YAML使用实现语言的数据类型 
YAML有一个一致的信息模型 
YAML易于实现 
YAML可以基于流来处理 
YAML表达能力强扩展性好 


它的基本语法规则如下。
• 大小写敏感
• 使用缩进表示层级关系
• 缩进时不允许使用Tab键,只允许使用空格。
• 缩进的空格数目不重要,只要相同层级的元素左侧对齐即可

# 表示注释,从这个字符一直到行尾,都会被解析器忽略。

yaml支持的数据类型

对象:
对象的一组键值对,使用冒号结构表示。
my_key: my_value

数组:
数据结构的子成员是一个数组,则可以在该项下面缩进一个空格
languages:
- python
- perl
- ruby


纯量
纯量是最基本的、不可再分的值
字符串
var: abc
布尔值
var: true
整数
var: 123
浮点数
var: 12.30
Null
var: ~
时间
time: 2001-12-14
日期
date 20:10:20


 当需要执行的任务有多个时,需要一条一条编辑ansible命令,然后执行,而且当需要重复执行时,又要重新编辑执行,这样效率不高,因此ansible就可以利用playbook来完成将任务写到一个YAML格式的文件中,然后利用ansible-playbook进行调用该文件,从而实现了多条语句,可重复执行的效果,类似shell脚本的效果,ansible的playbook要借助YAML文件来实现,YAML文件扩展名通常为.yaml或.yml

 

使用playbook的基本命令格式

Usage: ansible-playbook [options] playbook.yml [playbook2 ...]
-C, --check 干跑一次 不会真正落地
-f FORKS 做高并发
--list-hosts 列出匹配的主机
--syntax-check 检查语法

playbook的基础组件

hosts:运行指定任务的目标主机,多个主机用:冒号分隔
remote_user:在远程主机上执行任务的用户;可以全局指定,也可以单个任务指定,如果是root用户执行可以不用写,默认是root
sudo_user:表示以sudo方式运行任务时,切换为哪个用户身份运行
tasks: 任务列表

使用palybook来管理被控机

1 创建剧本

编写ansible的剧本,创建yaml语言的文件,文件的位置可以任意,为了规范,好记,最好有一个单独的目录存放剧本

我创建了mkdir /palybook这个目录来存在剧本

:后缀名是.yaml 或 yml


[root@master ~]# vim p1.yml

- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: add group
    group: name=IT
  - name: creat user
    user: name=alex20
- hosts: 192.168.16.140
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: copy
    copy: src=/var/log/yum.log dest=/tmp/

文件翻译成python的语言的格式

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记

文件的解释:

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
- hosts: web  # 应用的主机 web是主机组
  remote_user: root # 使用root来执行这个playbook
  tasks: # 要执行的任务
  - name: add group  # 任务的名字,可以随意写
    group: name=IT  # group 是执行的模块名 后面是模块的参数
  - name: creat user # 任务的名字
    user: name=alex20 # 使用user模块创建用户 alex20
- hosts: 192.168.16.140 # 140这台主机执行下面的命令
  remote_user: root # root用户执行
  tasks: # 执行任务
  - name: copy # 任务的名字
    copy: src=/var/log/yum.log dest=/tmp/ # 使用copy模块来复制文件
p1.yml

 

执行playbook

1 测试p1.yml的语法是否正确

[root@master ~]#ansible-playbook --syntax-check p1.yml

2 测试执行
[root@master ~]# ansible-playbook --check p1.yml
3 运行
[root@master ~]# ansible-playbook p1.yml

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: add group
    group: name=IT
  - name: creat user
    user: name=alex20
- hosts: 192.168.16.140
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: copy
    copy: src=/var/log/yum.log dest=/tmp/
[root@bogon palybook]# ansible-playbook p1.yml

PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.138]
ok: [192.168.16.139]

TASK [add group] ***************************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.139]
ok: [192.168.16.138]

TASK [creat user] **************************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.139]
ok: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY [192.168.16.140] **********************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.140]

TASK [copy] ********************************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.140]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=3    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=3    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.140             : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
View Code

 

 

剧本局用幂等性 : 幂等性 不管执行多少次,等到的结果都是一样的

2 剧本的传参- 5种方式

编写playbook

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
[root@bogon palybook]# cat p2.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
   - name: create{{user}}
     user: name={{user}}
cat p2.yml

 

2.1  在命令行中使用-e 传参:

ansible-playbook  -e user=alex21 p2.yml 

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.138]
ok: [192.168.16.139]

TASK [createalex21] ************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
ansible-playbook -e user=alex21 p2.yml

 

在web主机组上查看用户alex1创建成功

2.2 在hosts文件中实现传参

编写vim /etc/ansible/hosts文件

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
[web]
192.168.16.138 user=alex23
192.168.16.139 user=alex24
vim /etc/ansible/hosts

 

ansible-playbook   p2.yml

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.139]
ok: [192.168.16.138]

TASK [createalex23] ************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
ansible-playbook p2.yml

 

在被控节点发现在138上创建alex23

在被控节点发现在138上创建alex24

2.3 编写vim /etc/ansible/hosts文件

 

[web]
192.168.16.138
192.168.16.139
[web:vars]
user=alex25

 

ansible-playbook   p2.yml

 

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.138]
ok: [192.168.16.139]

TASK [createalex25] ************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.138]
changed: [192.168.16.139]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
ansible-playbook p2.yml

 

在被控节点上创建alex25的用户

2.4 在palybook中传参

 编写playbook

 

- hosts: web
  vars:
   - user: alex26
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
   - name: create{{user}}
     user: name={{user}}

 

ansible-playbook  p2.yml

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.139]
ok: [192.168.16.138]

TASK [createalex26] ************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
ansible-playbook p2.yml

在被控节点上创建 alex26

2.5 利用 register传参

 使用registe之前先看一个例子

 编写playbook. p3.yml

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
[root@bogon palybook]# cat p3.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: yum
    yum: name=bc
  - name: sum
    shell: echo "4+2"| bc
    register: he
  - name: echo
    shell: echo {{he}} > /tmp/sum.txt
cat p3.yml

在被控机上可以看到,是字典形式的,前面都有u 这是代表unicode

 

cat sum.txt
{stderr_lines: [], uchanged: True, uend: u2019-07-17 14:47:59.209104, failed: False, ustdout: u6, ucmd:uecho "4+2"| bc, urc: 0, ustart: u2019-07-17 14:47:59.204147, ustderr: u, udelta: u0:00:00.004957, stdout_lines: [u6]}

 

正确的写法:

 编写playbook. p3.yml

 

[root@bogon palybook]# cat p3.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: yum
    yum: name=bc
  - name: sum
    shell: echo "4+2"| bc
    register: he
  - name: echo
    shell: echo {{he.stdout}} > /tmp/sum.txt

 

被控机:

[root@bogon tmp]# cat sum.txt
6

 使用register创建用户alex27

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
[root@bogon palybook]# cat p4.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
  - name: yum
    yum: name=bc
  - name: sum
    shell: echo "25+2"| bc
    register: user
  - name: add user{{user.stdout}}
    user: name=alex{{user.stdout}}
cat p4.yml

 

ansible-playbook  p4.yml

 总结: 传参的优先级

-e > playbook > hosts 文件

3 使用tag

tag使用标记执行的模块的,可以选择单独执行某一个模块

现有 p5.yml 的文件,已知在被控节点上,已经安装好了,redis软件,如果我们执行copy模块来把主控节点的# ceshi

文件拷贝到被控节点上/etc/redis.conf上,

我们可以使用tag是执行copy 模块

[root@bogon palybook]# cat p5.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
   - name: install redis
     yum: name=redis
   - name: copy
     copy: src=/etc/redis.conf dest=/etc/redis.conf
   - name: service redis start
     service: name=redis state=started

具体的写法

1 我在节点的//etc/redis.conf 文件的最后添加了 # ceshi 来检验,copy模块是否成功
如果多个模块有tags标签,.想运行多个模块,可以用逗号将tags名字分开
ansible-playbook -t copyfile p5.yml

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.139]
ok: [192.168.16.138]

TASK [copy] ********************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=2    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
ansible-playbook -t copyfile p5.yml

 从运行的结果中可以看出只运行了 copy模块

在被控节点上:看到,说明copy成功

[root@bogon tmp]# tail -1 /etc/redis.conf
# ceshi
 

4 补充模块:setup

 用来收集被控端主机的信息:

ansible 192.168.16.169 -m setup

ansible的剧本 _ JavaClub全栈架构师技术笔记
192.168.16.138 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
            "192.168.16.138"
        ],
        "ansible_all_ipv6_addresses": [],
        "ansible_apparmor": {
            "status": "disabled"
        },
        "ansible_architecture": "x86_64",
        "ansible_bios_date": "07/31/2013",
        "ansible_bios_version": "6.00",
        "ansible_cmdline": {
            "BOOT_IMAGE": "/vmlinuz-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64",
            "LANG": "en_US.UTF-8",
            "crashkernel": "auto",
            "quiet": true,
            "rd.lvm.lv": "centos/swap",
            "rhgb": true,
            "ro": true,
            "root": "/dev/mapper/centos-root"
        },
        "ansible_date_time": {
            "date": "2019-07-17",
            "day": "17",
            "epoch": "1563348992",
            "hour": "15",
            "iso8601": "2019-07-17T07:36:32Z",
            "iso8601_basic": "20190717T153632604168",
            "iso8601_basic_short": "20190717T153632",
            "iso8601_micro": "2019-07-17T07:36:32.604252Z",
            "minute": "36",
            "month": "07",
            "second": "32",
            "time": "15:36:32",
            "tz": "CST",
            "tz_offset": "+0800",
            "weekday": "Wednesday",
            "weekday_number": "3",
            "weeknumber": "28",
            "year": "2019"
        },
        "ansible_default_ipv4": {
            "address": "192.168.16.138",
            "alias": "eno16777736",
            "broadcast": "192.168.16.255",
            "gateway": "192.168.16.2",
            "interface": "eno16777736",
            "macaddress": "00:0c:29:ba:8f:d2",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "netmask": "255.255.255.0",
            "network": "192.168.16.0",
            "type": "ether"
        },
        "ansible_default_ipv6": {},
        "ansible_device_links": {
            "ids": {
                "dm-0": [
                    "dm-name-centos-root",
                    "dm-uuid-LVM-122vaa2zigMi2y4jShiO0EFiCfRG0imyrXbbOGLi9aszGNyoVKnK0m4fBF3NclZH"
                ],
                "dm-1": [
                    "dm-name-centos-swap",
                    "dm-uuid-LVM-122vaa2zigMi2y4jShiO0EFiCfRG0imyiUq0NKSuO7SQHoEQMcGOaZ6JPI4yhzgR"
                ],
                "sda2": [
                    "lvm-pv-uuid-vraMCf-JSqM-a2Uo-onaI-cVS5-3YJX-x5R6F2"
                ],
                "sr0": [
                    "ata-VMware_Virtual_IDE_CDROM_Drive_10000000000000000001"
                ]
            },
            "labels": {
                "sr0": [
                    "CentOS\\x207\\x20x86_64"
                ]
            },
            "masters": {
                "sda2": [
                    "dm-0",
                    "dm-1"
                ]
            },
            "uuids": {
                "dm-0": [
                    "47577089-a032-4e19-9648-878f5330e70d"
                ],
                "dm-1": [
                    "a6a9dfb6-b70c-43bc-81c3-4281b8a8df46"
                ],
                "sda1": [
                    "ae1ee2e5-f71c-4bb7-822e-01e5f145592e"
                ],
                "sr0": [
                    "2015-12-09-23-14-10-00"
                ]
            }
        },
        "ansible_devices": {
            "dm-0": {
                "holders": [],
                "host": "",
                "links": {
                    "ids": [
                        "dm-name-centos-root",
                        "dm-uuid-LVM-122vaa2zigMi2y4jShiO0EFiCfRG0imyrXbbOGLi9aszGNyoVKnK0m4fBF3NclZH"
                    ],
                    "labels": [],
                    "masters": [],
                    "uuids": [
                        "47577089-a032-4e19-9648-878f5330e70d"
                    ]
                },
                "model": null,
                "partitions": {},
                "removable": "0",
                "rotational": "1",
                "sas_address": null,
                "sas_device_handle": null,
                "scheduler_mode": "",
                "sectors": "36634624",
                "sectorsize": "512",
                "size": "17.47 GB",
                "support_discard": "0",
                "vendor": null,
                "virtual": 1
            },
            "dm-1": {
                "holders": [],
                "host": "",
                "links": {
                    "ids": [
                        "dm-name-centos-swap",
                        "dm-uuid-LVM-122vaa2zigMi2y4jShiO0EFiCfRG0imyiUq0NKSuO7SQHoEQMcGOaZ6JPI4yhzgR"
                    ],
                    "labels": [],
                    "masters": [],
                    "uuids": [
                        "a6a9dfb6-b70c-43bc-81c3-4281b8a8df46"
                    ]
                },
                "model": null,
                "partitions": {},
                "removable": "0",
                "rotational": "1",
                "sas_address": null,
                "sas_device_handle": null,
                "scheduler_mode": "",
                "sectors": "4194304",
                "sectorsize": "512",
                "size": "2.00 GB",
                "support_discard": "0",
                "vendor": null,
                "virtual": 1
            },
            "fd0": {
                "holders": [],
                "host": "",
                "links": {
                    "ids": [],
                    "labels": [],
                    "masters": [],
                    "uuids": []
                },
                "model": null,
                "partitions": {},
                "removable": "1",
                "rotational": "1",
                "sas_address": null,
                "sas_device_handle": null,
                "scheduler_mode": "deadline",
                "sectors": "8",
                "sectorsize": "512",
                "size": "4.00 KB",
                "support_discard": "0",
                "vendor": null,
                "virtual": 1
            },
            "sda": {
                "holders": [],
                "host": "",
                "links": {
                    "ids": [],
                    "labels": [],
                    "masters": [],
                    "uuids": []
                },
                "model": "VMware Virtual S",
                "partitions": {
                    "sda1": {
                        "holders": [],
                        "links": {
                            "ids": [],
                            "labels": [],
                            "masters": [],
                            "uuids": [
                                "ae1ee2e5-f71c-4bb7-822e-01e5f145592e"
                            ]
                        },
                        "sectors": "1024000",
                        "sectorsize": 512,
                        "size": "500.00 MB",
                        "start": "2048",
                        "uuid": "ae1ee2e5-f71c-4bb7-822e-01e5f145592e"
                    },
                    "sda2": {
                        "holders": [
                            "centos-root",
                            "centos-swap"
                        ],
                        "links": {
                            "ids": [
                                "lvm-pv-uuid-vraMCf-JSqM-a2Uo-onaI-cVS5-3YJX-x5R6F2"
                            ],
                            "labels": [],
                            "masters": [
                                "dm-0",
                                "dm-1"
                            ],
                            "uuids": []
                        },
                        "sectors": "40916992",
                        "sectorsize": 512,
                        "size": "19.51 GB",
                        "start": "1026048",
                        "uuid": null
                    }
                },
                "removable": "0",
                "rotational": "1",
                "sas_address": null,
                "sas_device_handle": null,
                "scheduler_mode": "deadline",
                "sectors": "41943040",
                "sectorsize": "512",
                "size": "20.00 GB",
                "support_discard": "0",
                "vendor": "VMware,",
                "virtual": 1
            },
            "sr0": {
                "holders": [],
                "host": "",
                "links": {
                    "ids": [
                        "ata-VMware_Virtual_IDE_CDROM_Drive_10000000000000000001"
                    ],
                    "labels": [
                        "CentOS\\x207\\x20x86_64"
                    ],
                    "masters": [],
                    "uuids": [
                        "2015-12-09-23-14-10-00"
                    ]
                },
                "model": "VMware IDE CDR10",
                "partitions": {},
                "removable": "1",
                "rotational": "1",
                "sas_address": null,
                "sas_device_handle": null,
                "scheduler_mode": "cfq",
                "sectors": "8456192",
                "sectorsize": "2048",
                "size": "4.03 GB",
                "support_discard": "0",
                "vendor": "NECVMWar",
                "virtual": 1
            }
        },
        "ansible_distribution": "CentOS",
        "ansible_distribution_file_parsed": true,
        "ansible_distribution_file_path": "/etc/redhat-release",
        "ansible_distribution_file_variety": "RedHat",
        "ansible_distribution_major_version": "7",
        "ansible_distribution_release": "Core",
        "ansible_distribution_version": "7",
        "ansible_dns": {
            "nameservers": [
                "192.168.16.2"
            ]
        },
        "ansible_domain": "",
        "ansible_effective_group_id": 0,
        "ansible_effective_user_id": 0,
        "ansible_eno16777736": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "eno16777736",
            "features": {
                "busy_poll": "off [fixed]",
                "fcoe_mtu": "off [fixed]",
                "generic_receive_offload": "on",
                "generic_segmentation_offload": "on",
                "highdma": "off [fixed]",
                "large_receive_offload": "off [fixed]",
                "loopback": "off [fixed]",
                "netns_local": "off [fixed]",
                "ntuple_filters": "off [fixed]",
                "receive_hashing": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_all": "off",
                "rx_checksumming": "off",
                "rx_fcs": "off",
                "rx_vlan_filter": "on [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_offload": "on",
                "rx_vlan_stag_filter": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_stag_hw_parse": "off [fixed]",
                "scatter_gather": "on",
                "tcp_segmentation_offload": "on",
                "tx_checksum_fcoe_crc": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_ip_generic": "on",
                "tx_checksum_ipv4": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_ipv6": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_sctp": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksumming": "on",
                "tx_fcoe_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_gre_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_gso_robust": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_ipip_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_lockless": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_mpls_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_nocache_copy": "off",
                "tx_scatter_gather": "on",
                "tx_scatter_gather_fraglist": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_sit_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_tcp6_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_tcp_ecn_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_tcp_segmentation": "on",
                "tx_udp_tnl_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_vlan_offload": "on [fixed]",
                "tx_vlan_stag_hw_insert": "off [fixed]",
                "udp_fragmentation_offload": "off [fixed]",
                "vlan_challenged": "off [fixed]"
            },
            "hw_timestamp_filters": [],
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "192.168.16.138",
                "broadcast": "192.168.16.255",
                "netmask": "255.255.255.0",
                "network": "192.168.16.0"
            },
            "macaddress": "00:0c:29:ba:8f:d2",
            "module": "e1000",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "pciid": "0000:02:01.0",
            "promisc": false,
            "speed": 1000,
            "timestamping": [
                "tx_software",
                "rx_software",
                "software"
            ],
            "type": "ether"
        },
        "ansible_env": {
            "HOME": "/root",
            "LANG": "en_US.UTF-8",
            "LESSOPEN": "||/usr/bin/lesspipe.sh %s",
            "LOGNAME": "root",
            "MAIL": "/var/mail/root",
            "PATH": "/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin",
            "PWD": "/root",
            "SHELL": "/bin/bash",
            "SHLVL": "2",
            "SSH_CLIENT": "192.168.16.137 60835 22",
            "SSH_CONNECTION": "192.168.16.137 60835 192.168.16.138 22",
            "SSH_TTY": "/dev/pts/2",
            "TERM": "xterm",
            "USER": "root",
            "XDG_RUNTIME_DIR": "/run/user/0",
            "XDG_SESSION_ID": "23",
            "_": "/usr/bin/python"
        },
        "ansible_fibre_channel_wwn": [],
        "ansible_fips": false,
        "ansible_form_factor": "Other",
        "ansible_fqdn": "bogon",
        "ansible_hostname": "bogon",
        "ansible_hostnqn": "",
        "ansible_interfaces": [
            "lo",
            "eno16777736"
        ],
        "ansible_is_chroot": false,
        "ansible_iscsi_iqn": "",
        "ansible_kernel": "3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64",
        "ansible_lo": {
            "active": true,
            "device": "lo",
            "features": {
                "busy_poll": "off [fixed]",
                "fcoe_mtu": "off [fixed]",
                "generic_receive_offload": "on",
                "generic_segmentation_offload": "on",
                "highdma": "on [fixed]",
                "large_receive_offload": "off [fixed]",
                "loopback": "on [fixed]",
                "netns_local": "on [fixed]",
                "ntuple_filters": "off [fixed]",
                "receive_hashing": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_all": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_checksumming": "on [fixed]",
                "rx_fcs": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_filter": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_offload": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_stag_filter": "off [fixed]",
                "rx_vlan_stag_hw_parse": "off [fixed]",
                "scatter_gather": "on",
                "tcp_segmentation_offload": "on",
                "tx_checksum_fcoe_crc": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_ip_generic": "on [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_ipv4": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_ipv6": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksum_sctp": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_checksumming": "on",
                "tx_fcoe_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_gre_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_gso_robust": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_ipip_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_lockless": "on [fixed]",
                "tx_mpls_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_nocache_copy": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_scatter_gather": "on [fixed]",
                "tx_scatter_gather_fraglist": "on [fixed]",
                "tx_sit_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_tcp6_segmentation": "on",
                "tx_tcp_ecn_segmentation": "on",
                "tx_tcp_segmentation": "on",
                "tx_udp_tnl_segmentation": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_vlan_offload": "off [fixed]",
                "tx_vlan_stag_hw_insert": "off [fixed]",
                "udp_fragmentation_offload": "on",
                "vlan_challenged": "on [fixed]"
            },
            "hw_timestamp_filters": [],
            "ipv4": {
                "address": "127.0.0.1",
                "broadcast": "host",
                "netmask": "255.0.0.0",
                "network": "127.0.0.0"
            },
            "ipv6": [
                {
                    "address": "::1",
                    "prefix": "128",
                    "scope": "host"
                }
            ],
            "mtu": 65536,
            "promisc": false,
            "timestamping": [
                "rx_software",
                "software"
            ],
            "type": "loopback"
        },
        "ansible_local": {},
        "ansible_lsb": {},
        "ansible_lvm": {
            "lvs": {
                "root": {
                    "size_g": "17.47",
                    "vg": "centos"
                },
                "swap": {
                    "size_g": "2.00",
                    "vg": "centos"
                }
            },
            "pvs": {
                "/dev/sda2": {
                    "free_g": "0.04",
                    "size_g": "19.51",
                    "vg": "centos"
                }
            },
            "vgs": {
                "centos": {
                    "free_g": "0.04",
                    "num_lvs": "2",
                    "num_pvs": "1",
                    "size_g": "19.51"
                }
            }
        },
        "ansible_machine": "x86_64",
        "ansible_machine_id": "081f932dd7fb4b96a333f27e0f3928de",
        "ansible_memfree_mb": 629,
        "ansible_memory_mb": {
            "nocache": {
                "free": 835,
                "used": 150
            },
            "real": {
                "free": 629,
                "total": 985,
                "used": 356
            },
            "swap": {
                "cached": 0,
                "free": 2047,
                "total": 2047,
                "used": 0
            }
        },
        "ansible_memtotal_mb": 985,
        "ansible_mounts": [
            {
                "block_available": 95343,
                "block_size": 4096,
                "block_total": 127147,
                "block_used": 31804,
                "device": "/dev/sda1",
                "fstype": "xfs",
                "inode_available": 511670,
                "inode_total": 512000,
                "inode_used": 330,
                "mount": "/boot",
                "options": "rw,relatime,attr2,inode64,noquota",
                "size_available": 390524928,
                "size_total": 520794112,
                "uuid": "ae1ee2e5-f71c-4bb7-822e-01e5f145592e"
            },
            {
                "block_available": 4173596,
                "block_size": 4096,
                "block_total": 4576768,
                "block_used": 403172,
                "device": "/dev/mapper/centos-root",
                "fstype": "xfs",
                "inode_available": 18259518,
                "inode_total": 18317312,
                "inode_used": 57794,
                "mount": "/",
                "options": "rw,relatime,attr2,inode64,noquota",
                "size_available": 17095049216,
                "size_total": 18746441728,
                "uuid": "47577089-a032-4e19-9648-878f5330e70d"
            }
        ],
        "ansible_nodename": "bogon",
        "ansible_os_family": "RedHat",
        "ansible_pkg_mgr": "yum",
        "ansible_proc_cmdline": {
            "BOOT_IMAGE": "/vmlinuz-3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64",
            "LANG": "en_US.UTF-8",
            "crashkernel": "auto",
            "quiet": true,
            "rd.lvm.lv": [
                "centos/root",
                "centos/swap"
            ],
            "rhgb": true,
            "ro": true,
            "root": "/dev/mapper/centos-root"
        },
        "ansible_processor": [
            "0",
            "GenuineIntel",
            "Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-4200M CPU @ 2.50GHz"
        ],
        "ansible_processor_cores": 1,
        "ansible_processor_count": 1,
        "ansible_processor_threads_per_core": 1,
        "ansible_processor_vcpus": 1,
        "ansible_product_name": "VMware Virtual Platform",
        "ansible_product_serial": "VMware-56 4d 95 3c 07 3c 26 00-1c 3c 27 56 a2 ba 8f d2",
        "ansible_product_uuid": "564D953C-073C-2600-1C3C-2756A2BA8FD2",
        "ansible_product_version": "None",
        "ansible_python": {
            "executable": "/usr/bin/python",
            "has_sslcontext": true,
            "type": "CPython",
            "version": {
                "major": 2,
                "micro": 5,
                "minor": 7,
                "releaselevel": "final",
                "serial": 0
            },
            "version_info": [
                2,
                7,
                5,
                "final",
                0
            ]
        },
        "ansible_python_version": "2.7.5",
        "ansible_real_group_id": 0,
        "ansible_real_user_id": 0,
        "ansible_selinux": {
            "status": "disabled"
        },
        "ansible_selinux_python_present": true,
        "ansible_service_mgr": "systemd",
        "ansible_ssh_host_key_ecdsa_public": "AAAAE2VjZHNhLXNoYTItbmlzdHAyNTYAAAAIbmlzdHAyNTYAAABBBAIq8nwF4vJxd4021uQqf5zq97+bHlmOyMgre4fRvbfTqN0c04W8jI0Nekxw+l3cJh8nhefcAzAJjhbKebK7Ndc=",
        "ansible_ssh_host_key_ed25519_public": "AAAAC3NzaC1lZDI1NTE5AAAAIBQ4Ae+rq830BkdOrn/FcZ3ZLhntv7nYPniwU4K7qmnH",
        "ansible_ssh_host_key_rsa_public": "AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDoT4LU9LSj0whFKHRtdXL/Y9hgHCqafBn0LqPJy/Am+rXjHkGWmvC/JrhgYNk931vYiOT77KbreSpFEvumFAnr+MnyTVNnJuCLO7tgA9IvINF+Y/JwWoVobQj8vYIz0PBzDsiLSF8iGZyNcPQJFYjyh4cZqWSyo3PZxhghVIVjfcaZM9bVHvy2W7Vbh5GqCQRkkjEl5DkR+wlX+6t1MBRohTPms8VGbhpO4jI9YJtOcKGacjHoQN869Hk7X44sgPYgC41WTcJLmhba6Vkcx6z61wA0tKifvKODfMqm3VLiEOtL4Sb0oIu5Iw+VUYDEddQ8vJWRca4LjI8odsE92tDB",
        "ansible_swapfree_mb": 2047,
        "ansible_swaptotal_mb": 2047,
        "ansible_system": "Linux",
        "ansible_system_capabilities": [
            "cap_chown",
            "cap_dac_override",
            "cap_dac_read_search",
            "cap_fowner",
            "cap_fsetid",
            "cap_kill",
            "cap_setgid",
            "cap_setuid",
            "cap_setpcap",
            "cap_linux_immutable",
            "cap_net_bind_service",
            "cap_net_broadcast",
            "cap_net_admin",
            "cap_net_raw",
            "cap_ipc_lock",
            "cap_ipc_owner",
            "cap_sys_module",
            "cap_sys_rawio",
            "cap_sys_chroot",
            "cap_sys_ptrace",
            "cap_sys_pacct",
            "cap_sys_admin",
            "cap_sys_boot",
            "cap_sys_nice",
            "cap_sys_resource",
            "cap_sys_time",
            "cap_sys_tty_config",
            "cap_mknod",
            "cap_lease",
            "cap_audit_write",
            "cap_audit_control",
            "cap_setfcap",
            "cap_mac_override",
            "cap_mac_admin",
            "cap_syslog",
            "35",
            "36+ep"
        ],
        "ansible_system_capabilities_enforced": "True",
        "ansible_system_vendor": "VMware, Inc.",
        "ansible_uptime_seconds": 25300,
        "ansible_user_dir": "/root",
        "ansible_user_gecos": "root",
        "ansible_user_gid": 0,
        "ansible_user_id": "root",
        "ansible_user_shell": "/bin/bash",
        "ansible_user_uid": 0,
        "ansible_userspace_architecture": "x86_64",
        "ansible_userspace_bits": "64",
        "ansible_virtualization_role": "guest",
        "ansible_virtualization_type": "VMware",
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python",
        "gather_subset": [
            "all"
        ],
        "module_setup": true
    },
    "changed": false
}
ansible 192.168.16.138 -m setup

 

 参数说明:

ansible_all_ipv4_addresses #ipv4的所有地址
ansible_all_ipv6_addresses #ipv6的所有地址
ansible_architecture #系统的架构
ansible_bios_date #bios的出厂时间
ansible_bios_version #bios的版本
ansible_date_time #系统时间
ansible_default_ipv4 #系统的默认ipv4地址
ansible_default_ipv6 #系统默认的ipv6地址
ansible_distribution #系统的名称
ansible_distribution_major_version #系统的主版本号
ansible_dns #系统dns
ansible_env #系统环境
ansible_kernel #系统内核版本
ansible_machine #系统架构
ansible_memtotal_mb #系统的内存大小
ansible_os_family #系统的家族
ansible_pkg_mgr #系统包的管理工具
ansible_nodename #系统主机名
ansible_processor_cores #每颗cpu上的核心数
ansible_processor_count #cpu的颗数
ansible_processor_vcpus #cpu的总数= 颗数*核数
ansible_python #python版本
ansible_system #系统

template模块补充

template 和copy的模块的功能一样 ,都是向远程主机上传送文件的,可以copy是送的是原封不动的文件,template 可以将文件中的变量渲染出来

现有如下的文件,我们想把/etc/redis.conf 文件 传到远程的主机上,但/etc/redis.conf 问bind 的ip 是远程主机的ip,这时需要使用 template

[root@bogon palybook]# cat p5.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks: - name: copy copy: src=/etc/redis.conf dest=/etc/redis.conf - name: service redis start service: name=redis state=started

看主机的ip

ansible 192.168.16.139 -m setup -a "filter=*ipv4*"

192.168.16.139 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_all_ipv4_addresses": [
            "192.168.16.139"
        ],
        "ansible_default_ipv4": {
            "address": "192.168.16.139",
            "alias": "eno16777736",
            "broadcast": "192.168.16.255",
            "gateway": "192.168.16.2",
            "interface": "eno16777736",
            "macaddress": "00:0c:29:aa:b6:83",
            "mtu": 1500,
            "netmask": "255.255.255.0",
            "network": "192.168.16.0",
            "type": "ether"
        },
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    },
    "changed": false
}

 

 来编写主节点的/etc/redis.conf文件:

bind {{ansible_default_ipv4.address}}

主节点的剧本

 

[root@bogon palybook]# cat p5.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
   - name: copy
     template: src=/etc/redis.conf dest=/etc/redis.conf
   - name: service redis start
     service: name=redis state=started

 

 

 

ansible-playbook p5.yml

在被控节点上会看到grep bind /etc/redis.conf bind变成自己的主机ip了

bind 192.168.16.138

注意

在传输文件的时候src可以写相对路径和绝对路径

在写相对路径的时候,需要跟playbook文件同级创建templates目录

playbook的文件里写

- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: yum
    yum: name=redis
  - name: copyfile
    template: src=redis.conf dest=/etc/redis.conf
    tags: copyfile
  - name: start
    service: name=redis state=started
跟playbook文件同级创建templates目录

 

 

6 Handlers: 在发生改变时执行的操作(类似puppet通知机制)

在Handlers:默认是不执行的,当遇到notify 才执行,当notify 里面的内容改变了,才会触发handlers执行

[root@bogon palybook]# cat p5.yml
- hosts: web
  remote_user: root
  tasks:
   - name: copy
     template: src=/etc/redis.conf dest=/etc/redis.conf
     notify: restart
   - name: service redis start
     service: name=redis state=started
  handlers:
   - name: restart
     service: name=redis state=restarted

 

ansible-playbook   p5.yml

PLAY [web] *********************************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] *********************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.138]
ok: [192.168.16.139]

TASK [copy] ********************************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

TASK [service redis start] *****************************************************************************
ok: [192.168.16.138]
ok: [192.168.16.139]

RUNNING HANDLER [restart] ******************************************************************************
changed: [192.168.16.139]
changed: [192.168.16.138]

PLAY RECAP *********************************************************************************************
192.168.16.138             : ok=4    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0
192.168.16.139             : ok=4    changed=2    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0 ignored=0

7 when

条件判断

- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: context
    copy: content="大弦嘈嘈如急雨" dest=/tmp/shi.txt
    when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="7"
  - name: context
    copy: content="小弦切切如私语" dest=/tmp/shi.txt
    when: ansible_distribution_major_version=="6"


- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: context
    copy: content="大弦嘈嘈如急雨" dest=/tmp/shi.txt
    when: user=="7"
  - name: context
    copy: content="小弦切切如私语" dest=/tmp/shi.txt
    when: user=="6"
 ansible-playbook -e user=7 p13.yml 

 

8 循环

- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: createuser
    user: name={{item}}
    with_items:
    - alex40
    - alex41
    - alex42
    - alex43

 

 

- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: createuser
    user: name={{item}}
    with_items:
    - alex50
    - alex51
    - alex52
    - alex53
  - name: creategroup
    group: name={{item}}
    with_items:
    - wusir50
    - wusir51
    - wusir52

 

创建alex60 61 62 63 用户,组分别是 wusir60 61 62 63

- hosts: web
  tasks:
  - name: creategroup
    group: name={{item}}
    with_items:
    - wusir60
    - wusir61
    - wusir62
    - wusir63
  - name: createuser
    user: name={{item.name}} group={{item.group}}
    with_items:
    - {"name":"alex60","group":"wusir60"}
    - {"name":"alex61","group":"wusir61"}
    - {"name":"alex62","group":"wusir62"}
    - {"name":"alex63","group":"wusir63"}

 




==================================================
php.ini
时区
on66


部署rpm包的lamp环境
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: install httpd
yum: name=httpd state=present
- name: install mysql-server
yum: name=mysql-server state=present
- name: install php
yum: name=php state=present
- name: httpd conf
copy: src=/home/ansible/file/httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf mode=644
- name: mysql conf
copy: src=/home/ansible/file/my.cnf dest=/etc/my.cnf mode=644
- name: php conf
copy: src=/home/ansible/file/php.ini dest=/etc/php.ini mode=644
notify:
- start mysql
- start httpd
- name: service status
shell: netstat -anplt | grep -E '(mysqld|httpd)' > /tmp/lamp.status
- name: get lamp.status
fetch: src=/tmp/lamp.status dest=/tmp/
- name: test page
copy: src=/home/ansible/file/test.html dest=/var/www/html/test.html

handlers:
- name: start mysql
service: name=mysqld state=started
- name: start httpd
service: name=httpd state=started

=============================================

变量使用

常用的变量一般就两种
一种为用户自己定义的变量
一种为facts获取的变量(即ansible webserver -m setup查到的变量)
#ansible webserver -m setup //获取webserver信息

 

一自定义变量

1.用户在.yml文件自定义变量
示例:
[root@master ansible]# vim /home/ansible/1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
vars:
- var1: "abc"
- var2: 123
tasks:
- name: test vars
shell: echo "{{ var1 }} {{ var2 }}" >> /tmp/var.txt

[root@master ansible]# vim /home/ansible/1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
vars:
- packname: "nmap"
tasks:
- name: install package
yum: name={{ packname }} state=present

2.通过-e参数传递的变量
[root@master ansible]# ansible-playbook 1.yml -e packname=nmap
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: install package
yum: name={{ packname }} state=present

3.通过主机或者主机组配置文件传递的变量
主机:
[root@master ansible]# cat /etc/ansible/hosts
[webserver]
192.168.10.201 packname=nmap
192.168.10.202 packname=nmap

[root@master ansible]# ansible-playbook 1.yml
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: install package
yum: name={{ packname }} state=present

主机组
[root@master ansible]# cat /etc/ansible/hosts
[webserver]
192.168.10.201
192.168.10.202
[webserver:vars]
packname=nmap

[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: install package
yum: name={{ packname }} state=present


二.通过facts获取的系统的变量


即ansible webserver -m setup查到的变量
1.获取系统变量
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: hostname ipaddrss
shell: echo "{{ ansible_nodename}} {{ ansible_all_ipv4_addresses }}" > /tmp/facts.txt
- name: fetch file /tmp/facts
fetch: src=/tmp/facts.txt dest=/tmp

[root@master ansible]# cat /tmp/192.168.10.202/tmp/facts.txt
agent202.puppet.com [u'192.168.10.202']

2.本地facts(facts.d)自定义系统变量
客户端定义
在管控端创建如下目录:
[root@agent202 ~]# mkdir -p /etc/ansible/facts.d
创建文件:
[root@agent202 ~]# vim /etc/ansible/facts.d/test.fact
[general]
test_test1=123
test_test2=abc

[root@master ansible]# ansible webserver -m setup |grep ansible_local -A 5 //-C 5 上下5行
"ansible_local": {
"test": {
"general": {
"test_test1": "123",
"test_test2": "abc"
}
}
}

[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: test
shell: echo "{{ ansible_local.test.general.test_test1 }} {{ ansible_local.test.general.test_test2 }}" > /tmp/facts.txt
- name: fetch file /tmp/facts
fetch: src=/tmp/facts.txt dest=/tmp

[root@master ansible]# cat /tmp/192.168.10.202/tmp/facts.txt
123 abc


变量注册:
经常在playbook中,存储某个命令的结果在变量中,以备日后访问是很有用的. 这样使用命令模块可以在许多方面除去写站(site)特异事件,据哥例子 你可以检测某一个特定程序是否存在
这个 ‘register’ 关键词决定了把结果存储在哪个变量中
经常在playbook中,存储某个命令的结果在变量中,以备日后访问是很有用的. 这样使用命令模块可以在许多方面除去写站(site)特异事件,据哥例子 你可以检测某一个特定程序是否存在
这个 ‘register’ 关键词决定了把结果存储在哪个变量中
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: user root
shell: grep ^root /etc/passwd
register: pass_contents
- name: call pass_contents
shell: echo {{ pass_contents.stdout }} > /tmp/call.txt

如想查看那些值可以引用
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: user root
shell: grep ^root /etc/passwd
register: pass_contents
- name: call pass_contents
shell: echo {{ pass_contents }} > /tmp/call.txt

[root@agent202 ~]# cat /tmp/call.txt
{uchanged: True, uend: u2016-11-03 22:31:09.754515, ustdout: uroot:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash, ucmd: ugrep ^root /etc/passwd, ustart: u2016-11-03 22:31:09.750428, udelta: u0:00:00.004087, ustderr: u, urc: 0, stdout_lines: [uroot:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash], uwarnings: []}


剧本中的条件判断
ansible和puppet软件相同 是可以支持条件判断,使用when语句
如:
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: install package nmap
yum: name=nmap state=present
when: ansible_nodename == "agent202.puppet.com"
- name: install package httpd
yum: name=nmap state=present
when: ansible_nodename == "agent201.puppet.com"

使用注册变量
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: package is install
shell: rpm -q httpd|awk -F'-' '{print $1}'
register: httpd_install
- name: test httpd
service: name=httpd state=restarted
when: httpd_install.stdout == 'httpd'

- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: mysql user
shell: grep ^mysql /etc/passwd | awk -F':' '{print $1}'
register: mysql_install
- name: test mysqld service
service: name=mysqld state=restarted
when: mysql_install.rc == 0


剧本中的循环
如:添加 abc1-abc3用户
[root@master ansible]# cat 1.yml
- hosts: webserver
remote_user: root
tasks:
- name: add new users
user: name={{ item }} state=present
with_items:
- abc1
- abc2
- abc3


剧本中的roles
你现在已经学过 tasks 和 handlers,那怎样组织 playbook 才是最好的方式呢?简单的回答就是:使用 roles ! Roles 基于一个已知的文件结构,去自动的加载某些 vars_files,tasks 以及 handlers。基于 roles 对内容进行分组,使得我们可以容易地与其他用户分享 roles 。

存放角色的位置:/etc/ansible/roles

roles/
common/ # this hierarchy represents a "role" 这里的结构代表了一个 "role"
tasks/ #
main.yml # <-- tasks file can include smaller files if warranted
handlers/ #
main.yml # <-- handlers file
templates/ # <-- files for use with the template resource
ntp.conf.j2 # <------- templates end in .j2
files/ #
bar.txt # <-- files for use with the copy resource
foo.sh # <-- script files for use with the script resource
vars/ #
main.yml # <-- variables associated with this role
defaults/ #
main.yml # <-- default lower priority variables for this role
meta/ #
main.yml # <-- role dependencies

apache/
common/
files/ 存放模块调用的文件(如:copy 和 script)
templates/ 存放模板文件
tasks/ 任务存放的目录,至少包含一个main.yml的文件,该目录下也可以有其他.yml文件,但是需要在main.yml文件中用include指令将其他.yml文件包含进来(类似 puppet)
handlers/ 存放相关触发执行器的目录,至少应该包含一个main.yml的文件,文件中定义了触发器的任务清单,该目录下也可以有其他.yml文件,但是需要在main.yml文件中用include指令将其他.yml文件包含进来
vars/  变量存放的目录,至少应该包含一个main.yml的文件,文件中定义了相关的变量及其值,该目录下也可以有其他.yml文件,但是需要在main.yml文件中用include指令将其他.yml文件包含进来
defaults/ 默认变量存放的目录,至少应该包含一个main.yml的文件,文件中定义了此角色使用的默认变量,该目录下也可以有其他.yml文件,但是需要在main.yml文件中用include指令将其他.yml文件包含进来
meta/ 用于存放此角色元数据,至少应该包含一个main.yml的文件,文件中定义当前角色的特殊设定及其依赖关系, 该目录下也可以有其他.yml文件,但是需要在main.yml文件中用include指令将其他.yml文件包含进来

如何调用定义的角色?
- hosts: webserver          
remote_user: root          
roles:             
- apache


创建一个测试roles
1.创建角色的目录结构
mkdir -pv /etc/ansible/roles/apache/{files,templates,tasks,handlers,vars,default,meta} 

2.定义任务:
[root@master ansible]# vim /etc/ansible/roles/apache/tasks/main.yml
[root@master tasks]# cat /etc/ansible/roles/apache/tasks/main.yml
- name: install apache
yum: name=httpd state=present
- name: get main configure file
template: src=httpd.conf.j2 dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
- name: get sub configure file
template: src=robin.conf.j2 dest=/etc/httpd/conf.d/robin.conf
- name: create robin dir
file: path=/srv/robin state=directory
- name: get web page
template: src=index.html.j2 dest=/var/www/html/index.html
notify:
- restart apache


3.触发器任务:
[root@master tasks]# cat /etc/ansible/roles/apache/handlers/main.yml
- name: start apache
service: name=httpd state=present

4.准备需要的文件
[root@master files]# ls /etc/ansible/roles/apache/templates
httpd.conf.j2 index.html.j2 robin.conf.j2


















作者:木木霖
来源链接:https://www.cnblogs.com/lulin9501/p/11094258.html

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